115191, City of Moscow, Kholodilny per., bld. 3, office 4326,
tel./fax: +7(495)665-07-05
NEWS
Agrometeorological conditions of agricultural cultures harvesting during the 2nd decade of July

European territory.
On major territory of European part of Russia anomaly hot and dry weather continues to stay. Maximum air temperature has reached 32…36grad C, on the south of Central, Privolzhsky, major South and North-Caucasian federal districts - 37…39grad C, in places up to 40…41grad C and higher. In non-black soil zone minimal air temperature for the decade was 10…16grad C, on the west of North-West federal district and on the north-east of Privolzhsky federal district - 3…9grad C, in â black soil zone - 12…19grad C. Minimal temperature on soil surface was the same or for 1-3grad C lower. On major part of North-West and Privolzhsky federal districts and in the northern part of Central federal district average air temperature for the decade was 21…24grad C (on the north-east of North-West and Privolzhsky federal districts - 16…20grad C), on the south part of Central federal district, on the south of Privolzhsky federal district, in South and North-Caucasian federal districts average air temperature for the decade was 25…29grad C. Such air temperature to the north and to the west from line Arkhangelsk – Saratov – Belgorod for 6 - 8grad C exceeded norm; on remained territory average air temperature exceeded norm for 3 - 5grad C and only on the far north-east of North-West and Privolzhsky federal district the temperature was close to the norm. Repeatability of such hot weather in the second decade of July in major regions of European Russia is not high (less than 10%). In Novgorod, Kursk, and Penza regions such hot second decade of July has been identified for the first time; in Samara region it has been identified for the fourth time for the last 65 years.

On major territory of North-West, Central, Privolzhsky, and South federal districts there were little precipitations (1-5 mm or 5-30% of decade norm), in some of these districts there were no precipitations at all. In major part of North-Caucasian federal district, in places on South, in several districts on the north-west and on the south of Central, in places on the north of North-West and in several districts on the north and on the west of Privolzhsky federal districts there were rains of different intensiveness, sometimes with storms and squalls, in several places there was a hailstorm. In the specified districts amount of precipitations was mainly 15-30 mm or 60-130% of decade norm. In several places of North-Caucasian federal district, in individual plces of Nizhegorod region, Republic of Tatarstan, on the east of Orenburg region, and in places of Perm territory there were strong rains (35-70 mm and more per decade or 140-240% of decade norm and higher). For example, in state grain farm Ozerny (Orenburg region) there were 81 mm of precipitations, in Mikhailovskoye (Republic of North Osetia-Alania) – 83 mm, in Kursavka (Stavropol territory) – 100 mm that significantly exceeds monthly norm.

Average air humidity per decade on the far north-west of North-West federal district was 70-80%, in other districts of North-West federal district, on major territory of Central, northern and eastern districts of Privolzhsky federal district, on the south of South federal district and in major part of districts of North-Caucasian federal district - 51-65%. In south-east regions of Central federal district, in southern part of Privolzhsky federal district, in the northern part of South federal district, and on the north-east of Stavropol territory average air humidity per decade was very low (35-50%). About 7 – 10 days with minimal daily relative humidity of air (30 % and less) were observed in these regions.

Asian territory.
In Ural federal district the weather was warmer than usually for the major part of the decade; during the last three days of the decade temperature reduced (average daily air temperature was for 3-5grad C lower than norm). In western Siberia the weather was unstable: in the beginning and in the end of decade it was cold, in the mid of decade the weather was hot. On major territory of western Siberia the weather was warmer than usually. Average air temperature per decade in Ural and Siberian federal districts was 18…20grad C, in places of eastern Siberia - 21…22grad C. Such air temperature in Ural federal district and in western Siberia was close to norm, in eastern Siberia it was for 2-3grad C higher than norm. Maximum air temperature in the territory of the specified districts reached 28…33grad C, in places on the south of Omsk region, on the west of Altay territory, in Irkutsk region and Transbaikalia - 34…35grad C. Minimal air temperature in Ural federal district was 3…7grad C, in Siberian - mostly 8…12grad C.

On major territory of Ural and Siberian federal districts during 3 – 5 days of decade, and in Chelyabinsk region during 5 – 7 days there were about 15-30 mm of precipitations or 80-130% of decade norm, in places 35-50 mm and higher or 150-250% and more from decade norm. In some places on the south of Chelyabinsk region amount of precipitations was 1,0-1,5 and more of monthly norm: for example, in Troizk there were 95 mm of precipitations or 396% of decade norm, in Kizilskoye - 89 mm or 356%, in Varna and Kartaly - 132 mm or 528% of norm. Low precipitations (1 – 10 mm) have been observed in major districts of Tyumen, Omsk regions, on the north of Sverdlovsk region, in some locations on the north, east, and south of Novosibirsk region.

Average air humidity per decade in Ural and Siberian federal districts was 65-75%.

In agricultural districts of the Far East federal district the weather was warmer than usually. Maximum air temperature on several days increased to 28…31grad C. Minimal air temperature in Amur region was 10…11grad C, in Khabarovsk and Primorsky territory - 13…15grad C. Average air temperature per decade was 20…22grad C, that for major part of subjects is for 1-2grad C higher than norm.

On major territory of the district there were strong rains with storms. Amount of precipitations per decade was 20-50 mm or 60-120% of decade norm, in places 55-85 mm and higher or 150-200% and higher than decade norm. In several locations of Amur region, Primorsky territory, on the west of Khabarovsk territory amount of precipitations reached 100-150 mm and more or 250-350% and more than decade norm.

Average air humidity per decade in the territory of this district was high (80-85%).

Average air temperature, its deviation from many-years values, maximum air temperature, and sum of precipitations per decade are specified on charts in Appendix.


Agrometeorological conditions of agricultural cultures harvesting

Winter crops to the south from latitude of Kostroma in the end of the last decade (for three weeks earlier than average many-years terms) have ripened and their harvesting has been started. In more northern districts winter crops were at stage of wax ripeness. Spring barley and wheat reached wax ripeness to the south-west from line passing through Moscow, Nizhny Novgorod, Izhevsk, Orenburg. Complete ripeness was observed in central black soil regions and on the south of Privolzhsky federal district. Due to abnormal hot and dry weather in June – July a period from milk to wax ripeness of crops in this year was for 1.5 – 2 times shorter than usually. Besides that grain dried until complete ripeness unusually rapid. On many fields in Privolzhsky federal district and on the east of Central federal district shriveling of grain is increased (up to 30-40% and higher). Harvested grain is dry, its humidity was mainly from 10 to 17 %.

On major territory of Central and Privolzhsky federal districts there were no precipitations during the last decade or they were insignificant (1 – 5 mm). Deficit of air humidity was high – 17-20 mb. Under such conditions harvesting as a rule may be conducted during daylight hours. However, high maximum air temperatures (34…37grad C, on the south-east of Privolzhsky federal district and in Voronezh region up to 39…40grad C) and overheating of harvesting mechanisms obstructed harvesting conditions. Such hot weather during the second decade of July (even average air temperature per decade was 25…27grad C, that is for 5-8grad C higher than norm) has not been observed in major regions of Central and Privolzhsky federal districts for the last 65 years.

In South and North-Caucasian federal districts crop harvesting was conducted under favourable conditions. Weight of harvested grain (weight of 1000 grains) was 38-48 grams. Threshed grain is dry, its humidity varies from 9 to 11 %, in places it reaches 18 %. On major territory of North-Caucasian federal district and in several south-east districts of Krasnodar territory harvesting conditions were worsened for 2 – 3 days due to rains (30 – 45 mm per decade and more) which significantly obstructed haulm stand of grain crops.


Agrometeorological conditions of agricultural cultures growth and development

Early spring crops

In major districts of South federal districts, in North-Caucasian federal district harvesting of spring barley was conducted. Absolute weight of grain (weight of 100 grains) in general was close to usual and was 40-50 grams, on the north of Rostov region and in several districts of Volgograd region due to drought weight of 1000 grains was reduced 9less than 30 grams). In south part of Central federal district and on the south of Privolzhsky federal districts spring crops (barley and wheat) in the end of the last decade have reached complete ripeness (for three weeks earlier than average many-years terms), their harvesting has been started. Absolute weight of grain (weight of 100 grains) on the south-east of Central and in major districts of Privolzhsky federal districts was significantly less than usual weight and was 12 - 30 grams, in part of fields increased shriveling of grain (30 % and more) has been observed. In other south districts of Central federal district absolute weight of grain was close to normal and was about 30-50 grams. In more northern districts (up to line Tvery, Kostroma, Nizhny Novgorod, Izhevsk, Orenburg) early spring barley and wheat have reached wax ripeness during the last decade that is also for three weeks earlier than average many-years terms. On the north of Central, on the north and east of Privolzhsky federal districts and in major districts of North-West federal district there was observed milk ripeness of early spring crops, on fields of late terms of sowing the crops were spiring and blushing.

In North-West federal district, on the west and north-west of Central federal district where the hot weather prevailed with enough humidity of plants the conditions for finishing of forming of harvest of early spring crops were satisfactory. In topsoil there were 15 – 30 mm and more of production moisture, in 1 m layers there were 120 – 145 mm and more of the moisture.

Conditions for finishing of forming of harvest of early spring crops worsened on the east of Central federal district; on major part of Privolzhsky federal district the conditions were bad, like in previous decade. In topsoil of these districts there were less than 10 mm of productive moisture; on many fields the topsoil was dry, in 1 m layer moisture content was less than 50 mm. plants were damaged by drought for different extent. The plants are undersized. Their height even at stage of milk ripeness did not exceed 30 – 40 cm. Leaves and haulms of plants were dried; on some fields the plants were dried completely. Drought caused increased shriveling of grain and small ear on many fields. Only on the east of Orenburg region where it was raining and stock of productive moisture in soil was enough (in topsoil up to 24 – 26 mm, in 1 m layer – up to 65 – 125 mm) the conditions for forming of harvest of early spring crops improved.

On major territory of Ural and Siberian federal districts early spring crops were spiring and blushing. In some fields of early terms of sowing in Sverdlovsk, Chelyabinsk, and Kurgan regions milk ripeness of crops was detected. Temps of plants development are close to average many-years temps or exceed the terms for one week.

On the north of Ural and on major part of territory of Siberian federal districts conditions for finishing of forming of harvest of early spring crops were good or satisfactory. Occurring rains of different intensiveness provided enough moisture for plants. In topsoil there were 18 – 35 mm of productive moisture, in 1 m layer – from 110 to 160 mm and more of moisture. In several districts of Chelyabinsk region and on the south of Kurgan region, as well as in Transbaikalia during the last decade there were rains which supplied moisture to soil and interrupted drought on many fields in these regions. In these regions reserves of productive moisture in topsoil increased up to 15-25 mm, in 1 m layer – up to 90-120 mm. Conditions for forming of harvest of spring crops of late terms of sowing which started to spire in these regions were improved. In some places of Kemerovo region and Krasnoyarsk territory where strong rains occurred there was lodging of crops. However, on the west of Altay territory, in several south-west districts of Novosibirsk region where there were not enough precipitations the reserves of moisture for early spring crops were decreased. In topsoil there were 7 – 12 mm of productive moisture, on some fields on the west of Altay territory reserves of productive moisture in 1 m layer which were not enough (60 – 70 mm) and bad (less than 50 mm) occurred very rear. In districts of this territory where reserves of moisture were poor the crops were damaged by drought (early icterus of lower leaves, drying of leaves and some hauls), besides that on several fields there was distribution of agricultural varmint and diseases. Productiveness of ear of early spring crops in these districts is low. An ear of spring wheat contained 10 – 15 developed ears and 2 – 3 underdeveloped ones. On several fields in southern part of Ural federal district, on the south-west of Novosibirsk region, as well as on the west of Altay territory and in some places of Transbaikalia territory, on individual fields of Republic of Khakassia and Tyva the crops were undersized (30 – 40 cm).

According to data of autoroutes investigations in south-west districts of Omsk region early spring crops on 63 % of investigated fields were in good condition, on 37 % of fields – in satisfactory condition. In Republic of Khakassia such condition of crops was detected on 67-74% and 26-33%, in Republic of Tyva - on 92% and 8% of investigated fields, respectively. In Krasnoyarsk territory good condition of spring crops (wheat and barley) was detected on 83-84% of investigated fields, satisfactory condition - on 15-16% of the fields, and bad condition – on 1 % of investigated fields.

On the south of Primorsky Kray early spring crops reached wax ripeness, in other agricultural districts of the Far East milk ripeness of crops was observed. Conditions for finishing of forming of harvest of crops were satisfactory. In topsoil there was 20 – 40 mm of productive moisture, in 1 m layer – 90 – 170 mm of moisture.

Corn

On major territory of South, North-Caucasian, and on the south of Central federal districts corn head and ear continued to blush, the earliest crops reached milk ripeness (for two weeks earlier than average many-years terms). On fields of late terms of sowing in these regions, as well as on fields with corn of early terms of sowing in Middle Volga region there was observed paniculation and formation of leaves. Agrometeorological conditions for growth and formation of corn harvest in major districts of Central, Privolzhsky, and on the north of South federal districts were unfavorable due to abnormally hot weather (35…41grad C during the day), drought (5-10 days per decade) and deficit of moisture in soil. In major districts of South and on the north of North-Caucasian federal districts reserves of productive moisture in 0.5 m layer of soil reduced to not sufficient levels (25-35 mm), in northern and north-west districts of Rostov region, on the south of Central federal district and in Middle Volga region the reserves reduced to bad levels (5 – 25 mm). Some stations in European territory detected damage of plants due to draught and hot winds (loss of turgor pressure during the day, early damage of lower leaves, drying of leaves). Hydrometeorological station Boguchar detects drying of new thread-like columns of corn. On one plant in average there were 1,0-1,5 ears, sometimes less. In several north and north-west districts of Rostov region the formed ears are small, with signs of iner-grainity. Many hydrometeorological stations reduced estimation of corn state to satisfactory. Several enterprises harvested corn for fodder purposes. On the south of Krasnodar territory and in southern districts of North-Caucasian federal district conditions for growth and formation of corn harvest were satisfactory. Reserves of productive moisture in 0.5 m layer of soil in these districts were 40 – 70 mm.

In Middle Volga region in some fields the corn continued to form leaves, in average 10 – 15 leaves per plant. Height of such plants in average increased for 10 – 20 cm per decade and in the end of decade it varied from 60 to 120 cm. Intensiveness of plant mass deposition was only 20 – 30 % of optimum.

In agricultural districts of Western Siberia corn continued to form leaves, in average 11 – 13 leaves per plant. Height of such plants in average increased for 20 – 30 cm per decade and in the end of decade it varied from 60 to 100 cm. State of plants is generally good and satisfactory. In the beginning and in the end of decade there was not enough warm to support normal development and growth of corn. Moisture provision of plants in major districts is enough and good. In 0.5 m layer of soil there was mainly 40 – 70 mm of productive moisture, in several places on the south-west of Novosibirsk region and on the west of Altay territory there was only 15 – 25 mm of productive moisture.

Sugar beet

In beet-sowing districts of European part of Russia the following has been observed: root of sugar beet continues to grow, leaf apparatus continues to form. On major part of plantations there was a stage of “closing of inter-row spacing”; on plantations of Middle Volga region where leaves growth was poor due to draught, there was a stage “closing of plants in rows”.

In major districts of Middle Volga region conditions for growth of beet root were unfavorable, because topsoil was completely dried during the last decade, and in 1 m soil layer the moisture reserves were poor (30 – 40 mm), only in some places the reserves were about 60 mm. Under conditions of high day temperatures (33…36grad C) and soil draught increase in weight of beet root per decade was poor (20 – 30 g), in some places growth of root was stopped. Average weight of beet root according to data as of 20 July was 70 – 120 g.

Abnormally hot weather that was observed during the last decade in central black soil regions (temperature during the day was 34…37grad C, in Voronezh region – up to 39…40grad C), and deficit of moisture in soil in several districts led to worsening of moisture provision of beet to satisfactory, and even bad level. In major part of districts there were no precipitations or their amount did not exceed 1 – 7 mm, and reserves of productive moisture in topsoil reduced to bad (3-9 mm), in 1 m layer - to 40-50 mm, in several districts of Voronezh and Tambov regions – to 20 – 30 mm. Conditions for growth of beet root were also worsened due to overheating of top layer of soil. Average soil temperature at depth of 10 cm was 27…29grad C. Increase in beet root weight per decade on fields where reserves of moisture in soil were bad was only 15 – 30 g. In major part of districts in Kursk region and in several districts in Tambov region where reserves of moisture in soil were good and satisfactory, increase of root weight was 65 – 80 g. Average weight of beet root in the end of decade on major part of plantations in central black soil regions was 120 – 170 g that is close to the value of previous year. In several districts of Voronezh and Tambov regions where dry conditions were in June the weight of beet root was only 70-90 g. good weight of beet root (up to 230-300 g) was only in western districts of Kursk region and on several fields in Tula region. Condition of beet in Voronezh and Tambov regions in generally is satisfactory, in remained territories – good and satisfactory.

On North Caucasus on major part of plantations conditions for growth of beet root were good and satisfactory. Reserves of productive moisture in topsoil were mainly 20 – 22 mm, in 1 m layer – 110 – 120 mm and were enough for normal growth of root. However soil temperature at depth of 10 cm was very high – in average per decade 29…30grad C, that worsened conditions for growth of beet root. Increase in root weight per decade in major part of districts was 60 – 100 g, weight of root in the end of decade was 250 – 330 g, in Korenovsk and Primorsk-Akhtarsk districts of Krasnodar territory on fields with high soil fertility - 400-490 g. Such weight of root is close to weight of the previous year. In several districts where for a long period there was a deficit of precipitations and reserves of productive moisture in topsoil and 1 m layer reduced to bad levels: to 2-4 mm and 25-40 mm, respectively, weight of root was not high – about 150 g.

In Altay territory growth of beet root passed under conditions of normal air temperatures and enough moisture provision of plants. Reserves of productive moisture in topsoil were 30 – 35 mm, in 1 m layer – 150 – 160 mm. Average soil temperature at depth of 10 cm was 21-22grad C. Condition of beet plants is mainly satisfactory.

Sunflower

On major part of industrial growing of sunflower the plants were blushing and their baskets were growing. On fields of late terms of sowing in western part of Rostov region sunflowers continued to form flower heads.

On the south-west of Central and on the north-east of South federal districts during the last decade there were no precipitations, and maximum air temperature increased to 37…39grad C and higher due to which reserves of productive moisture reduced to insufficient and bad levels. In topsoil there were 3 – 8 mm of productive moisture (in several places the topsoil was almost dry), in 1 m layer there were 55 – 65 mm, on the east of Voronezh region, on the north-east of Rostov region and in several districts of Volgograd region there were less than 50 mm of moisture in soil. Conditions for formation of sunflower harvest worsened. In several southern districts of Privolzhsky federal district where abnormal hot and dry weather was observed conditions for formation of sunflower harvest were bad like in the first decade of July. Here reserves of productive moisture as in topsoil, so in 1 m layer were bad (less than 10 mm and less than 50 mm, respectively). In major part of these districts plants are damaged by draught for the certain extent. Plants faded during day-light hours, their leaves and sometimes flowers became yellow and dry. Diameter of sunflower basket is not large (8 – 11 cm); plants of early terms of sowing on the north of Rostov region had underdeveloped center part of sunflower basket.

In other districts of Central federal district, on the south of South federal district, and in major part of districts in North-Caucasian federal district reserves of productive moisture in soil were sufficient. In topsoil there were 15-20 mm, in 1 m layer – 70 – 120 mm and more of productive moisture. Height of plants varied from 130 to 160 cm, some plants reached 180 – 210 cm, diameter of basket was mainly 16 – 20 cm. Conditions for formation of sunflower harvest were satisfactory.

In Altay territory sunflowers continued to form flower heads and their haulms continued to grow. Height of sunflower varied from 70 to 125 cm. In topsoil in eastern districts of the territory there was 23 – 25 mm, in 1 m layer – 105 – 130 mm of productive moisture. On the west of the territory where there were low precipitations reserves of productive moisture in topsoil reduced to insufficient (15 – 18 mm), and in some places to bad (less than 10 mm), in 1 m layer they were mostly sufficient (80-97 mm), only in several places the reserves were bad (less than 50 mm). Height of sunflower in districts with insufficient and bad reserves of moisture in soil was 37 – 57 cm. Condition of plants is satisfactory.

News, 23 July 2010

Source: Grain on-line